The term salves is simple a generic term used to describe or label any type of cream, lotion or ointment which you would use for skin that is severely dry, cracked, burned or in some other way irritated or damaged. These topical ointments come in all types and choosing the best one for your skin is merely a matter of preference in most cases.

Generally salves that are available on the market contain all natural ingredients such as aloe and other naturally healing herbs to help treat the dry and infected area and promote healing from the inside to the outside.

Salves are most notably used for the treatment of burned, irritated and dry skin and are applied to the outer layer where the area is causing the most discomfort. Natural healing herbs such as aloe, avocado and witch hazel are quite common ingredients. Applying the soothing creams or ointments to the affected areas, usually multiple times per day will quickly rehydrate or moisturize the dry or burned area and help your skin return to its natural, hydrated and healthy state.

Drawing Salves

In the past few years there have been a series of drawing salves that have come out on the market which have lead to some controversy. Drawing salves and the companies that manufacture it claim that unlike regular ointments, the drawing salves literally draw out infections, poisons, splinters and other ailments that are within the body.

Drawing salves are very popular with the new age or spiritual communities as it is thought the ailments reside or present themselves due to negativity from within or that we react to by way of the universe. Many of these community members believe that skin disorders and ailments are a direct result of spiritual ailments and that for them to be treated properly, those ailments need to be prompted to the surface or are "drawn out" by natural drawing salves.

While many drawing salves include the same ingredients as typical salves, others include natural herbs such as Calendula, Arnica and Echinacea, all of which are thought to have magical healing agents within them. Some also include herbs and agents such as Comfrey Oil which acts as an anti-inflammatory and Bergamot oils because they are rich in vitamin E.

The holistic communities have also claimed that drawing salves have the capacity to draw out tumors beneath the skin as well as can be used to treat spider bites and can counteract venom excreted from a snake bite. Many of the studies and clinical trials have been inconclusive to such claims, but still a large portion of the population reports successful treatment of such ailments using this type of salve.

The ingredients

The ingredients within salves naturally contain oils and fats that help the body to replenish lost moisture as well as soothe irritated skin or burned skin and cells. The second job of the salves is to continue to protect delicate skin from harsh weather conditions such as brisk cold which can cause chaffing and chapping and the sun's RV rays that can cause irritation and burns.

Salves are safe to use on skin as well as can be applied to the lip area. Salves that contain aloe are great for burns because aloe has a natural cooling agent within it which feels amazing on hot and burned skin. Calendula often contains anti-inflammatory agents as well as natural pain relievers within it, which also makes it a popular choice for salves.

Many salves are created and referred to as organic salves. This type of salve contains active ingredients such as Tea Tree Oil known to have antibacterial and antifungal agents, Lavender which has antiseptic properties in it and aloe for its cooling agents.

For a salve to be labeled as organic is must have natural and home grown organic herbs only within the ingredients. One such salve which has increased in popularity is called Black Salve. It's popularity rests in the claims that it can naturally burn skin ruptures such as moles, skin tags and cysts as well as other anomalies. Black salves all contain an herb called Bloodroot which is naturally harvested and is very strong. It is recommended that if you wish to use Black Salves that you do so under the care of a physician or herbologist because of the intensity of it.

Other uses for salves also include treatment for bronchitis and sinusitis. By placing a little dab under the nose or rubbing it on the chest the natural ingredients act as a vapor which can clear passageways making breathing easier as well as being able to break up phlegm thereby also unblocking airways.

Because organic salves use home grown and all natural ingredients they are often a little more costly than regular over the counter salves. There are also books and information available on the Internet for recipes on how to make your own natural and organic salves if you are so inclined.


Topical Medication

This article is about topical medications. For other uses, see Topic (disambiguation).

A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body, as opposed to systemically. (The word topical derives from Greek topikos, "of a place".) Most often this means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via a large range of classes including creams, foams, gels, lotions, and ointments.

Many topical medications are epicutaneous, meaning that they are applied directly to the skin. Topical medications may also be inhalational, such as asthma medications, or applied to the surface of tissues other than the skin, such as eye drops applied to the conjunctiva, or ear drops placed in the ear, or medications applied to the surface of a tooth. As a route of administration, the topical route is contrasted with the enteral route (in the digestive tract), the intravenous route (injected into veins), and others.

A topical effect, in the pharmacodynamic sense, may refer to a local, rather than systemic, target for a medication. However, many topically administered drugs have systemic effects, because they reach the circulation after being absorbed by the tissues.

Topical medications differ from many other types of drugs because mishandling them can lead to certain complications in a patient or administrator of the drug.

Some hydrophobic chemicals, such as steroid hormones, can be absorbed into the body after being applied to the skin in the form of a cream, gel, or lotion. Transdermal patches have become a popular means of administering some drugs for birth control, hormone replacement therapy, and prevention of motion sickness. One example of an antibiotic that may be applied topically is chloramphenicol.

Choice of base formulation

A medication's potency often is changed with its base. For example, some topical steroids will be classified one or two strengths higher when moving from cream to ointment. As a rule of thumb, an ointment base is more occlusive and will drive the medication into the skin more rapidly than a solution or cream base.

The manufacturer of each topical product has total control over the content of the base of a medication. Although containing the same active ingredients, one manufacturer's cream might be more acidic than the next, which could cause skin irritation or change its absorption rate. For example, a vaginal formulation of miconazole antifungal cream might irritate the skin less than an athlete foot formulation of miconazole cream. These variations can, on occasion, result in different clinical outcomes, even though the active ingredient is the same. No comparative potency labeling exists to ensure equal efficacy between brands of topical steroids (percentage of oil vs water dramatically affect the potency of topical steroid). Studies have confirmed that the potency of some topical steroid products may differ according to manufacturer or brand. An example of this is the case of brand name Valisone cream and Kenalog cream in clinical studies have demonstrated significantly better vasoconstrictions than some forms of this drug produced by generic drug manufacturers. However, in a simple base like an ointment, much less variation between manufacturers is common.

In dermatology, the base of a topical medication is often as important as the medication itself. It is extremely important to receive a medication in the correct base, before applying to the skin. A pharmacist should not substitute an ointment for a cream, or vice versa, as the potency of the medication can change. Some physicians use a thick ointment to replace the waterproof barrier of the inflamed skin in the treatment of eczema, and a cream might not accomplish the same clinical intention

Classes of topical medications

There are many general classes, with no clear dividing line between similar formulations. As a result, what the manufacturer's marketing department chooses to list on the label of a topical medication might be completely different from what the form would normally be called. For example, Eucerin "cream" is more appropriately described as an ointment than as a cream.

Topical solution

Topical solutions are of low viscosity and often use water or alcohol in the base. The solution can cause drying of the skin if alcohol is used in the base. These are usually a powder dissolved in water, alcohol, and sometimes oil. Alcohol in topical steroids can frequently cause drying if it is used as a base ingredient. There is significant variability between brands. There is a risk of irritation, depending on the preservative(s) and fragrances used in the base. Some examples of topical solutions are given below:

  1. Aluminium acetate topical solution: This is colorless, with a faint acetous odour and sweetish taste. It is applied topically as an astringent after dilution with 10-40 parts of water. This is used in many types of dermatologic lotions, creams, and pastes. Commercial premeasured and packed tablets and powders are available for this preparation.
  2. Povidone iodine topical solution: This is a chemical complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone, the agent being a polymer having an average molecular weight of 40,000. The povidone iodine contains 10% available iodine, slowly released when applied to skin. This preparation is employed topically as a surgical scrub and non irritating antiseptic solution, with its effectiveness being directly attributed to the presence and release of iodine from the complex. Commercial product: Betadine solution.


Lotions are similar to solutions but are thicker and tend to be more emollient in nature than solution. They are usually an oil mixed with water, and more often than not have less alcohol than solutions. Lotions can be drying if they contain a high amount of alcohol. There is a significant variability in the ingredients between different lotions.

Shake lotion

A mixture that separates into two or three parts with time. Frequently an oil mixed with a water-based solution needs to be shaken into suspension before use. "Shake well before use".


A cream is an emulsion of oil and water in approximately equal proportions. It penetrates the stratum corneum outer layer of skin wall. Cream is thicker than lotion, and maintains its shape when removed from its container. It tends to be moderate in moisturizing tendency. For topical steroid products, oil-in-water emulsions are common. Creams have a significant risk of causing immunological sensitization due to preservatives. It has a high rate of acceptance by patients. There is a great variation in ingredients, composition, pH, and tolerance among generic brands.


An ointment is a homogeneous, viscous, semi-solid preparation, most commonly a greasy, thick oil (oil 80% - water 20%) with a high viscosity, that is intended for external application to the skin or mucous membranes. Ointments have a water number that defines the maximum amount of water that it can contain.They are used as emollients or for the application of active ingredients to the skin for protective, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes and where a degree of occlusion is desired.

Ointments are used topically on a variety of body surfaces. These include the skin and the mucous membranes of the eye (an eye ointment), chest, vulva, anus, and nose. An ointment may or may not be medicated.

Ointments are usually very moisturizing, and good for dry skin. They have a low risk of sensitization due to having few ingredients beyond the base oil or fat, and low irritation risk. There is typically little variability between brands of drugs. They are often disliked by patients due to greasiness.

The vehicle of an ointment is known as the ointment base. The choice of a base depends upon the clinical indication for the ointment. The different types of ointment bases are:

The medicaments are dispersed in the base and are divided after penetrating the living cells of the skin.

The water number of an ointment is the maximum quantity of water that 100g of a base can contain at 20 °C.

Ointments are formulated using hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or water-emulsifying bases to provide preparations that are immiscible, miscible, or emulsifiable with skin secretions. They can also be derived from hydrocarbon (fatty), absorption, water-removable, or water-soluble bases.

Evaluation of ointments
  1. Drug content
  2. Release of medicament from base
  3. Medicament penetration
  4. Consistency of the preparation
  5. Absorption of medicament into blood stream
  6. Irritant effect

Properties which affect choice of an ointment base are:

  1. Stability
  2. Penetrability
  3. Solvent property
  4. Irritant effects
  5. Ease of application and removal
Methods of preparation of ointments

Trituration: In this finely subdivided insoluble medicaments are evenly distributed by grinding with a small amount of the base followed by dilution with gradually increasing amounts of the base.

Fusion: In this method the ingredients are melted together in descending order of their melting points and stirred to ensure homogeneity.


Gels are thicker than a solution. Gels are often a semisolid emulsion in an alcohol base. Some will melt at body temperature. Gel tends to be cellulose cut with alcohol or acetone. Gels tend to be drying. Gels tend to have greatly variable ingredients between brands. Gels carry a significant risk of inducing hypersensitivity due to fragrances and preservatives. Gel is useful for the scalp and body folds. In applying gel one should avoid fissures and erosions due to the drying and stinging effect of the alcohol base. Gel enjoys a high rate of acceptance due to its cosmetic elegance.


Foam can be seen with topical steroid marketed for the scalp.

Transdermal patch

Transdermal patches can be a very precise time released method of delivering a drug. Cutting a patch in half might affect the dose delivered. The release of the active component from a transdermal delivery system (patch) may be controlled by diffusion through the adhesive which covers the whole patch, by diffusion through a membrane which may only have adhesive on the patch rim or drug release may be controlled by release from a polymer matrix. Cutting a patch might cause rapid dehydration of the base of the medicine and affect the rate of diffusion.

Biofrequency chip

A topical dosage form that is programmed with low frequencies recognized by the body and complements topical medication adhered to the backing of the chip.


Powder is either the pure drug by itself (talcum powder), or is made of the drug mixed in a carrier such as corn starch or corn cob powder (Zeosorb AF - miconazole powder). Can be used as an inhaled topical (cocaine powder used in nasal surgery).


Medication may be placed in a solid form. Examples are deodorant, antiperspirants, astringents, and hemostatic agents. Some solids melt when they reach body temperature (e.g. rectal suppositories).


Certain contraceptive methods rely on sponge as a carrier of a liquid medicine. Lemon juice embedded in a sponge has been used as a primitive contraception in some cultures.


Cordran tape is an example of a topical steroid applied under occlusion by tape. This greatly increases the potency and absorption of the topical steroid and is used to treat inflammatory skin diseases.


Some medications are applied as an ointment or gel, and reach the mucous membrane via vaporization. Examples are nasal topical decongestants and smelling salt.


Paste combines three agents - oil, water, and powder. It is an ointment in which a powder is suspended.


A tincture is a skin preparation that has a high percentage of alcohol. It would normally be used as a drug vehicle if drying of the area is desired.

See also


External links